subtest score is thought to indicate the compensated or Basic
state which the primitive Externalizer or Internalizer acquires
at adolescence. For either, a high Arithmetic score indicates
that compensation took place, while a low score suggests that
compensation failed to occur. The reasons are as follows:
involves symbolic reasoning. It is therefore a skill which the
primitive Externalizer acquires slowly, and with great difficulty.
It is, however, also an ability which is emphasized in school,
and is commonly called upon in the course of daily living. In
view of his inherent problems in this area, the Externalizer has
two courses open to him in this connection.
he can admit his inferiority, and accept his limitations without
forcing himself to overcome them. In this case, his score on
the Arithmetic Subtest will be poor in relation to his Normal
Level, showing that he has failed to compensate for his inherent
- The second
choice open to the Externalizer is to force himself to master
the subject with great effort, thus compensating for his limitation.
In so doing, he has developed internalized skills through compensation,
and will achieve a high arithmetic score in consequence.
The primitive Internalizer, on the other hand, usually performs
well in arithmetic with very little effort. In fact, his inherent
facility in approaching the subject is so great that he may give
a spurious impression of mastery, which he may never be called
upon to prove, and may well not possess.
- If he
has failed to discipline his natural ideational tendency sufficiently
to enable him to apply it to practical and specific tasks, he
will do poorly on the Arithmetic subtest, thus manifesting his
lack of compensation.
- If however,
he has acquired control by compensating in the externalized
direction, he will obtain a high Arithmetic score.
to the theory, a moderately uncompensated state in primitive Externalizers
and Internalizers is suggested by an Arithmetic score which is
two or three points below his Normal Level. This condition is
symbolized by a u. An Arithmetic score of four or more points
below the Normal Level indicates an extreme lack of compensation,
which is represented by a u+.
If the Arithmetic
score falls between one point below and two points above Normal
Level, moderate compensation, c, is indicated, while two points
or more above Normal Level suggests an extremely compensated,
or c+ state.
subtest is regarded as the indicator of the quality of the modified,
or contact state, which is acquired by the Externalizer or Internalizer
at maturity. In both cases, a high Information score, (in relation
to Normal Level), is considered a sign that modification took
place. A low Information score, on the other hand, is thought
to suggest a lack of modification. The theoretical rationale is
of information for which the subtest calls is essentially ideational
in nature. Further, the necessary retention involves the type
of memory which is characteristically an Internalizer's trait.
Both Internalized content and internalized skills, therefore,
are involved in good performance on the subtest
the Externalizer is penalized in these respects, so that, if he
does well, he must have modified his externalized orientation
by acquiring internalized abilities. Conversely, low Information
scores in an Externalizer suggests that he is still functioning
primarily on the basis of his inherent skills, having failed to
on the other hand, has the skills which are necessary to do well
on the Information subtest. However, in order to achieve a high
Information score, he must have modified his inherent lack of
responsiveness to the environment, or he would have remained unaware
of the environmental events to which the items refer. In an Internalizer,
then, a low Information score indicates that he has not departed
from his original autistic tendency, and has failed to adapt his
ideational skills to specific, external happenings. An Internalizer
may also achieve a low Information score if he has denied his
ideational dominance in order to compensate, in which case the
utilization of internalized skills has become a threat to him.
In the Internalizer,
then, the Information score will be low if ideational reactivity
has not been disciplined, or if it has been denied. In either
case, he has not acquired modification, and his unmodified state
will be reflected in an Information score which is low in relation
to his Normal Level. On the other hand, a modified adjustment,
in an Internalizer, is indicated when his Information score is
well above his Normal Level.
Externalizers and Internalizers, a relatively unmodified, or u,
contact state is inferred from an Information score which is two
or three points below the Normal Level. An extremely unmodified,
or u+, adjustment is implied by an Information score of four or
more points below it. A moderately modified, or c, adaptation
is indicated by an Information score equal to the subject's Normal
Level, or one point above or below it. An Information score of
two or more points above the Nonmal Level is taken as a sign that
extreme, or c+, modification has taken place.
Subtests Associated With The Rigid - Flexible Dimension
Design subtest is theoretically regarded as the indicator of the
subject's tendency with regard to the Rigid - Flexible dimension.
The reasons are as follows:
Design subtest, like the Digit Span, involves a task which the
subject can handle in one of two fundamentally different ways.
The two approaches, in this case, correspond to the problem-solving
methods which are inherent in primitive rigidity and primitive
- The first
approach involves breaking down each design into its component
parts, thus facilitating the accurate reproduction of the specific
units which make up the total configuration. This is the natural
method of the rigid individual, who has the inherent ability
to focus and concentrate on narrow, specific aspects of a problem.
Since this way of handling the Block Design task tends to result
in superior performance, the subject will achieve a high score
precisely because he is rigid.
characteristics of rigidity also contribute to raising the rigid
subject's Block Design score. He usually works in an orderly
fashion, rarely placing a block until he has recognized its
correct final position. He is not readily distracted, nor does
he find concentration on minute details irksome. He does not
need to look for the relationships of the parts to each other,
nor is it necessary for him to derive their meaning from an
understanding of the whole. He tends to proceed by rote, perseverating
with one specific unit until it has been properly placed.
the situation itself is not distracting to the rigid subject.
He can concentrate on the designs, unaware of the interpersonal
aspects of the test situation, and largely without anxiety concerning
the impression which his performance is making. Insulated from
external and internal interference, he is able to reproduce
the designs by accurate imitation of their elements.
combination of abilities and personality traits which stem from
rigidity are so well suited to successful Block Design performance,
that the theory estimates the strength of the subject's primitive
rigidity on the basis of how well he performs on this subtest.
the strength of rigidity, the theory con- siders that a moderate
degree of primitive rigidity, (in symbolic form, an R), is suggested
by a Block Design score which corres- ponds to the Normal Level,
or which falls one point above or below it. Strong primitive
rigidity, represented as "R+," is in- ferred from a Block Design
score of one or more weighted score points above Normal Level.
- The second
approach to the Block Design subtest is to perceive the designs
in terms of their overall effects. In this method of handling
the task, the subject responds to the individuality of each
design, reconstructing the pattern from the reference point
of its totality. As a result, he is likely to make minor inaccuracies
in his reproductions, and his score on the subtest suffers in
consequence. This is the typical approach of the flexible subject,
whose Block Design score is characteristically low, because
of the way in which he approaches the task.
attributes of the primitively flexible subject contribute to
a further lowering of his Block Design score. He is inherently
distractible, and finds concentration difficult, Attention to
detail tends to irritate him, and small, discrete, units of
the design are apt to escape him entirely, because they are
essentially meaningless to him. He has a need to look for the
relationships of the various parts to each other, and to seek
for their meaning through an understanding of the whole. He
is thus likely to lose points in terms of time, as well as accuracy.
subject is also likely to find the test situation itself distracting,
so that both external and internal stimuli interfere with his
reproductions. He is aware of the interpersonal aspects of the
situation, and highly responsive to them. His inherently wide
range of perception not only prevents him from focusing on the
details of the designs, but it also forces him to regard the
tasks which are presented to him as only one aspect of the total
situation in which he is placed.
combination of skills and attributes which characterize primitive
flexibility are so poorly suited to successful performance on
the Block Design subtest, that the strength of his inherent flexibility
is theoretically shown by just how poorly he scores.
the strength of the subject's primitive flexibility, the theory
holds that a moderate degree is suggested by a Block Design score
of two or three weighted score points below Normal Level. The
subject who achieves such a score is therefore represented as
an F. If the Block Design score falls four weighted score points
or more below Normal Level, the individual is considered an F+,
in whom primitive flexibility is strong.
subtest is thought to reflect the quality of the subject's basic,
or compensated rigid or flexible state. High and low Similarities
scores are thought to represent different basic conditions in
rigid and flexible subjects. In a primitively rigid subject, a
high Similarities score is regarded as a sign that compensation
occurred, while a lack of compensation is inferred from a low
Similarities score, The opposite relationships are thought to
hold in connection with the primitively flexible subject. In his
case, a low Similarities score is thought to indicate compensation,
while a high Similarities score is believed to reflect its lack.
The reasoning is as follows:
subtest involves the ability to see relationships. This ability
is fundamentally alien to the rigid subject, so that if he does
poorly on this subtest, he has failed to acquire flexible skills.
The theory holds that the extent to which he has retained the
dominance of his primitive rigidity is shown by the extent of
his failure to perceive the relationships which are involved in
the Similarities subtest.
If his score
is two or three points below his Normal Level, he is regarded
as moderately uncompensated, or as a u. Extreme lack of compensation
is suggested if his Similarities score is four or more points
below his Normal Level. In this case, he is represented as a u+.
where a rigid subject does relatively well on the Similarities
subtest, he must have acquired the ability to do so through compensation.
The theory therefore maintains that the extent of his compensation
can be estimated by just how much ability he has acquired in seeing
If his Similarities
score corresponds to his Normal Level, or falls ore point above
or below it, the rigid subject is thought to have achieved a moderately
compensated, or a c state. An extreme of compensation, or a c+
adjustment is suggested in the rigid subject who achieves a Similarities
score of four or more points above his Normal Level.
conditions are thought to hold for the Primitive F. Since the
ability to see relationships is natural for him, a high Similarities
score indicates that he is functioning in accordance with his
primitive tendency, and has failed to compensate for it. In the
theory's view, the extent of his lack of compensation is shown
by just how well he performs on the Similarities subtest. If his
Similarities score is equal to his Normal Level, or within one
point of it in either direction, his lack of compensation is thought
to be moderate, and he is symbolized as u. An extremely uncompensated
state is suggested in a flexible subject by a Similarities score
which is two or more points above Normal Level. This adjustment
is represented as u+.
On the other
hand, the theory regards a poor Similarities score in a flexible
subject as an indication that he has reacted against his primitive
flexibility by adopting the characteristically rigid lack of insight
into relationships through compeasation. The extent of his compensation
is inferred by the extent of his deficiency in this respect. If
his Similarities score is two or three points below his Normal
Level, his basic adjustment is considered as moderately compensated,
and is symbolized as c. He is regarded as extremely compensated,
or as c+, if his Similarities score is four or more points below
his Normal Level.
subtest is thought to suggest the nature of the subject's rigid
or flexible adult state. In both cases, a high Comprehension score
is associated with modification, and a low score, with a failure
to modify. The following theoretical reasons underlie these interpretations:
and retention of the kind of material for which the Comprehension
subtest calls, involves primarily practical and procedural skills.
Since these are essentially R abilities, a rigid subject will
perform relatively poorly on this subtest only if he has failed
to develop appropriate control of his mechanical and procedural
tendencies, or has repressed them in order to compensate. In a
primitively rigid individual, then, a low Comprehension score
indicates an unmodified adjustment, due to either a lack of discipline,
or to denial.
A high Comprehension
state in a primitively rigid subject, on the other hand, implies
that he has acquired sufficient modfication to enable him to use
mechanical and procedural skills appropriately and relevantly
These characteristics will flected in high Comprehension scores,
obtained by the rigid individual, in this case, on the basis of
the skills which he has attained through the process of modification.
to the rigid subject, the primitively flexible one is inherently
inept in mechanical and procedural approaches. As a result, unless
he has modified his primitive tendency, he will obtain a relatively
low Comprehension score. In fact, such a score indicates his failure
to modify precisely because it demonstrates that he has not developed
the abilities which modification would have afforded him. If he
has modified, on the other hand, he will achieve a high Comprehension
score, because he has acquired the talents which were not naturally
his through the very process of modification
the direction and strength of either a rigid or flexible contact
state, a Comprehension score two or three points below the subject's
Normal Level is thought to reflect a fairly unmodified, or a u
adjustment. A more extensively unmodified, u+ adaptation, is indicated
by a Comprehension score four points or more below Normal Level.
A relatively modified, or c contact state, is inferred from a
Comprehension score which falls at Normal Level, or within one
point of it in either direction. A Comprehension score two points
or more above Normal Level is considered a sign of a strongly
modified, or c+ contact adjustment.
Subtests Associated With The Acceptable-Unaccentable Dimension
Arrangement subtest is regarded as the indicator of the subject's
primitive tendency in connection with the Acceptable-Unacceptable
personality dimension. The theory advances the following rationale:
Arrangement subtest, like Digit Span and Block Design, presents
the subject with problems which can be handled in one of two distinct
ways. Here, the two approaches reflect the inherent differences
in social perception which characterize primitively acceptable
and unacceptable individuals, respectively
- The first
method is to interpret the Picture Arrangement items as primarily
social and interpersonal situations. This represents the natural
perceptual emphasis of the primitively acceptable subject, who
has an inherently high degree of social-interpersonal awareness.
The nature of his perceptual preference tends to result in a high
Picture Arrangement score, since the subtest calls primarily for
insight into total social situations in predominantly human contexts.
acceptability provides a subject with additional advantages on
the Picture Arrangement subtest. He is capable of quick appreciation
of the social relationships which are involved, and he is well
able to identify appropriate social roles and behave accordingly.
He therefore can readily empathize with the human characters presented
in the Picture Arrangement subtest, and is highly adept in predicting
their social behavior. He will also gain points for time, because
he is capable of rapid, as well as appropriate, social judgments.
subject has the further advantage of the ability to handle unfamiliar
situations effectively, so that he is not upset by the novel settings
which the Picture Arrangement subtest introduces. His special
pattern of personality attributes and skills is, therefore, singularly
likely to result in successful Picture Arrangement performance.
the theory estimates the strength of his primitively acceptable
component on the basis of how well he does on this subtest, in
relation to his own Normal Level.
the strength of the subject's primitive acceptability, a Picture
Arrangement score which falls two points below Normal Level to
one point above it is thought to indicate a moderately acceptable
tendency. Such an individual, then, is designated as an A. He
becomes an A+ if his Picture Arrangement score is two points or
more above his Normal Level, a discrepancy which suggests that
his primitive acceptability is strong.
- The second
method of dealing with the Picture Arrangement subtest is to regard
the situations which are presented apart from the social contexts
which are implied. This approach is characteristic of the primitively
Unacceptable subject, who, by definition, has an inherent lack
of social awareness. He will thus be relatively unaware of the
cues which point to the correct solutions, and his Picture Arrangement
score will be correspondingly low.
unacceptable individual is at further disadvantage on the Picture
Arrangement items. His inherent deficiency in social awareness
will not only prevent him from correctly identifying the area
which the subtest involves, but will also make it difficult for
him to emphathize with the human characters who are presented.
He will therefore be inaccurate in predicting the outcomes. Further,
he will lose considerable time, because he is working in areas
in which he lacks fundamental understanding.
subject is further hampered on the Picture Arrangement subtest
by his tendency to be upset in novel situations. Since he is limited
in social versatility, unfamiliar settings tend to be threatening
to him. His special combination of skills and personality traits
is therefore such that he becomes particularly ineffectual in
handling Picture Arrangement items.
therefore judges the strength of his primitive unacceptability
by how poorly he performs on this subtests in relation to his
When a subject
obtains a Picture Arrangement score three or four points below
his Normal Level, the theory regards him as characterized by a
moderately unacceptable, or U. primitive tendency. A Picture Arrangement
score which falls five or more points below Normal Level is interpreted
as a sign that the subject's primitive unacceptability is strong.
He is therefore symbolized as a U+.
Completion subtest is considered as the indicator of the quality
of the subjects compensated adjustment in the Acceptable-Unacceptable
dimension. High and low Picture Completion scores are thought
to reflect different basic adaptations in acceptable and unacceptable
subjects. In the primatively acceptable individual, a high Picture
Completion score is thought to indicate a lack of compensation,
while a low Picture Completion score is regarded as a sign that
compensation has occurred.
with the primitively unacceptable individual, the opposite relationships
are theoretically maintained. In his case, a high Picture Completion
score is thought to indicate that compensation took place, while
a low Picture Completion score is interpreted as a sign of compensation
failure. The following rationale Is advanced by the theory:
Completion subtest involves the ability to recognize and respond
to objects in the environment. Since an "A" learns to respond
to external objects with ease, he will do well on the Picture
Completion items, if he has retained his inherent skills by failing
to compensate for them. High Picture Completion scores, for him,
thus indicate an uncompensated basic state.
to the theory, he is considered to be moderately uncompensated,
or u, if his Picture Arrangement score is equal to his Normal
Level, or within one point of it in either direction. If his Picture
Completion score is two or more points above his Normal Level,
his basic adjustment is considered to be extremely uncompensated,
or u+. When an acceptable subject does poorly on the Picture Completion
subtest, the theory regards his poor performance as an indication
that he has reacted against his inherent skills. In this event,
he will obtain a low Picture Completion score, beeause he has
denied his inherent skills, and thus no longer exercises his ability
to respond appropriately to environmental objects. A low Picture
Completion score in an A thus reflects a compensated state. The
theory considers that an acceptable subject is moderately compensated
if his Picture Completion score is two or three points below his
Normal Level; and extremely compensated if his Picture Completion
score is four or more points below it. In the former case, he
is de- signsted as a c." In the latter event, he is symbolized
as a c+."
relationships between Picture Completion per- formance and Normal
Level are thought to exist in regard to the primitively Unacceptable
subject. He is inherently lacking in ability to identify and respond
to environmental objects. Therefore, if he does poorly on the
Picture Completion subtest, he is still functioning within the
limitations of his primitive tendency, having failed to compensate
for it. A moderate lack of compensation in an unacceptable subject
is thought to be suggested by a Picture Completion score which
falls two or three points below his Normal Level. He is is therefore
represented symbolically as u. If his Picture Completion score
is four or more points below his Normal Level, he is considered
to have achieved an extremely uncompensated. or u+, Basic state.
If, on the
other hand, a primitively unacceptable subject does well on the
Picture Completion subtest, he can do so only if he has acquired
skills which are not inherently his, i.e., he must have compensated.
If an unacceptable
individual achieves a Picture Completion score which corresponds
to his Normal Level, or which falls within one point of it in
either direction, he is thought to have reached a moderate degree
of compensation. In this event, he is represented as a c. The
unacceptable subject who achieves a Picture Completion score two
points or more above his Normal Level is regarded as extremely
compensated, and is symbolized as c+.
Assembly subtest. is believed to indicate the adjustment state
of the acceptable or unacceptable personality component at maturity.
A low Object Assembly score is thought to reflect a modified adaptation
at the adult level, while a high Object Assembly score is associated
with an unmodified state. The theory gives the following rationale:
Assembly subtest is regarded as a measure of what is called motivational
anxiety for personality change.
an individual will attempt to change only if he is dissatisfied
with himself as he is. This dissatisfaction then induces modifications
which, by definition, is a process undertaken because the individual
is aware of the limitations in his Basic adjustment. He is motivated
to change his personality because he has become anxious about
it. It is his lack of self-satisfaction, then, which provides
the motivational anxiety for change.
individual has associated anxiety with his basic adjustment, he
will exert considerable effort to impose modification upon it.
He will, however, lack confidence in. his modified state, recognizing
that it is tenuous and vulnerable. This anxiety and insecurity
will also be reflected in a lack of confidence in his ability
to deal with the human content of the Object Assembly items, and
in an overconcern with the examiner's expectations. In brief,
the same difficulties which induced the modification will also
lead to poor performance on the Object Assembly items.
Assembly scores, then, are theoretically associated with the modified
states. In contrast, the subject who regards his basic adjustment
as acceptable has little motivational anxiety for personality
change, and will not undertake modification. His favorable self-perception
will also be reflected in freedom from anxiety in dealing with
the human content of the Object Assembly items and in lack of
concern in regard to the examiner's expectations.
Such a subject
is therefore able to devote himself directly to the tasks, and
will perform well as a result. His success on the subtest is thus
related to his lack of self-dissatisfaction, which, in turn, also
resulted in his failure to modify. High Object Assembly scores,
thens are theoretically associated with the unmodified states.
the direction and strength of modification, a relatively unmodified,
or u, adjustment is inferred from an Object Assembly score which
falls in a range of two points below to one point above the Normal
Level. An extremely unmodified, or u+, state is suggested by an
Object Assembly score of two or more points above the Normal Level.
A relative- ly modified, or c", orientation is implied by a score
which is three or four points below Normal Level, while an extremely
modified, or c+, condition is characterized by one which falls
below the Normal Level by five points or more.
The Digit Symbol Subtest
PAS was first envisioned, the Digit Symbol subtest was not regarded
as related to any specific personality compotent. Recently, however,
the work of Dr. David Saunders has resulted in the formulation
of interpretive rules whereby this test, in combination with other
data cab be used to assess a subject's personality with respect
to how goals are approached and achieved. This "Fourth Dimension"
as it is refered to in PAS circles, is still being evolved. Accordingly,
it is given a section of its own and you may learn more about
it by clicking on The Fourth
this work the Digit Symbol score is not taken into account in
estimating the primitive, basic, and contact levels of the subject's
person- ality structure.
performance, however, is thought to be related to the overall
quality of the subjecty's total functioning. The Digit Symbol
score is therefore given symbolic representation in the complete
formulae which are described in the section on the PAS
system of descriptive notation. However, as will be shown
later, the score is placed in the last position in the formulae,
after the subject's major personality components have been identified.
The method by which the Digit Symbol score is represented is used
chiefly in order to keep the theory's symbol system consistent.
The direction and strength of this score is in- ferred, as usual,
by comparing it to the individual's Normal Level. A u+ refers
to a Digit Symbol score five or more points below Normal Level;
a u represents one which is three or four points below it; a c
designates one which falls in the range of two points below to
one point above it; and a c+ symbolizes one which exceeds it by
two points or more.
In the case
of Digit Symbol scores, the letters u and c do not indicate compensated
or modified states, as they do in connection with the specific
components of personality. However, the letters do have the usual
meaning in terms of direction in relation to Normal Level. The
presence or absence of the plus sign, too, is given the customary
to the subject's Normal Level, then, a u+ Digit Symbol score is
regarded, in relative terms, as very low; a u as moderately low;
a c as retained, or moderately high; and a c+ as very high.
recognizes the extreme variability of the Digit Symbol subtest,
and emphasizes the need for caution in interpreting it. Digit
Symbol performance is influenced ad- versely by factors such as
anxiety, depression, and fatigue.
also reflects the effect of certain kinds of special experience,
since a subject who has been trained in, say, the use of shorthand,
may achieve a high score because of a practice effect. Nevertheless,
certain theoretical generalizations are thought to be warranted
in connection with performance on the Digit Symbol subtest.
maintains that the position of a subject's Digit Symbol score,
in relation to his Normal Level, provides a rough estimate of
the extent of his awareness of, and his inclination to interact
with, people and events in his environment. The quality of this
interaction is also thought to be indicated.
a high activity level, aggressiveness, and intensity are associated
with high Digit Symbol scores, especially with those which fall
in the "very high" category. These attributes can be advantageous
when they occur in a personality type which permits of their constructive
utilization. However, when they are associated with other personality
patterns, they are more likely to result in negativism, destructive
aggression, overt hostility, and denial.
Symbol scores, on the other hand, may be associated with anxiety,
depression, low activity levels, and lack of alertness. Very low,
or u+, scores, in some patterns, are thought to indicate profound
and disabling depression and anxiety. However, this interpretation,
also, depends on the particular personality pattern in which the
low score occurs.
Digit Symbol performance cannot be interpreted without reference
to the subjeet's overall personality organization, it cannot be
said that either high or low scores are "good" or "bad" signs
also assigns a special kind of interpretation to the Digit Symbol
score. Performance on this subtest is regarded as indication of
the stability with which the individual can maintain the contact
level of his personality. This concept is related to the theory's
special view of the attribute of moodiness.
is regarded as a sign of the tendency, on the part of the subject,
to vacillate between the basic and contact levels within his personality
is thought to occur when there are large discrepancies between
the two adjustments, thus permitting a wide range of vacillation.
In such eases, the individual's ability to maintain his contact
personality, particularly under stress, is closely related to
his general stability and efficiency in functioning.
Digit Symbol score, a u or a c, is thought to imply the ability
to respond appropriately to the pressures and strains of everyday
living. Of the two, the retained or moderately high score is thought
to reflect the greater stability in maintaining the contact state,
although fluctuations between the two adjustments are regarded
as relatively common. Extreme scores, u+ and c+, are interpreted
as indications of wide mood swings, resulting in an "episodic,"
or uneven behavioral quality.
It is thought
that the direction of the extreme Digit Symbol scores is largely
externally determined, and that strength is the more important
personality factor. The major differences between subjects who
obtain u+ and c+ Digit Symbol scores are believed to lie in potential
behavioral differences under stress. In stress situations, it
is thought that the individual whose Digit Symbol score is c+
will tend to intensify his contact personality. His vacillations,
then, will be chiefly in directions which are away from his basic
adjustment. A u+ Digit Symbol score, in contrast, Is regarded
as an indication that vacillations will be toward, rather than
away from, the basic state.
To find a
subject's Normal Level from his weighted Wechsler scores follow
Vocabulary score (if it was obtained) then rank the remaining
ten subtest scores from the highest to the lowest. The highest
score is put at the top of the list of scores. The second-highest
score gets the next position in the list and so on.
If there are ties, retain the scores. If, say, the scores
were 11, 11, 9, 9, 9, 8, 8, 7, 6, 5 then the score 11 is used
for the two top positions in the list, the score of 9 fills
the next three position and 8 goes into the sixth and seventh
positions and so on. The final list of scores looks like this:
- Add together:
- The 3rd ranked score,
- The 4th ranked score multiplied by 6,
- The 5th ranked score multiplied by 5,
- The Similarities score,
- The Information score.
- From the result of the above computation, subtract:
- Finally, from this result, subtract 2.
is the subject's Normal Level. Subtract this from each of the
subject's weighted Wechsler scores to obtain the PAS deviation,
or ipsitive, scores.
the PAS Formula
deviation scores obtained above, enter Table 2, below. The subtests
associated with each of the personality dimensions, and the direction
and strength implied by the magnitude of the deviations of the
scores from Normal Level are obtained and converted to PAS notation
by the Table and the following chart.