symbol system is used with the Personality Assessment System to
express the strength of original (Primitive) tendencies and to
indicate the degree and direction of compensation and modification.
The symbols are particularly useful as a shorthand expression
of the more complex aspects of personality.
probably already encountered the use of capital letters to indicate
the initial letter in the name of the original or innate tendency.
Thus, an Externalizer is designated by the letter E and an Internalizer
by the letter I. R refers to an individual with original Regulated-literal
tendencies and F to an essentially Flexible-sensitive person.
The letters A and U stand for innate Role Adaptive and Role Uniform.
or the lack of it, is shown by a lower case letter placed immediately
after the symbol representing the Primitive tendency it qualifies.
The letter c stands for compensated, while the letter u for uncompensated.
An Ic, for example, symbolizes a compensated Internalizer while
an Eu represents an uncompensated Externalizer.
combination of original and compensatory tendencies, however,
represents a stereotyped form of adaptation. Individual variations
are introduced by factors such as the strength of the Primitive
tendencies in the individual and the amount of acceptance that
these qualities are accorded by the environment.
A child may,
for example, be extremely externalized originally, in which case
PAS designates him as E+. External pressure may be minimal so
that he fails to compensate at all. This combination is represented
by the symbols E+u+. An E+u indicates a strong Primitive Externalizer
whose failure to compensate has not been so marked as in the first
instance. An Eu+ designates a moderate strength original Externalizer
who has met with no, or very little, environmental pressure and
thus remains highly uncompensated.
categories within the uncompensated internalized adjustment are
assigned similar symbols. Here again, such factors as the strength
of the Primitive internalized tendency and the quality of environmental
pressure bring in a number of individual differences. The various
possibilities parallel those in the En category. The orientations
here include the I+u+, I+u, Iu, and the Iu+.
A small c
in place of a u points to the fact that the individual has developed
in a direction opposite to his original tendency. The notation
Ec, for example, indicates an original Externalizer who has compensated
by developing in an Internalizer direction. Here again, the symbol
system designates the strength of the compensatory tendency as
well as the strength of the original dimension. A c represents
compensation, but not in extreme form. Thus, Ec implies that the
individual has compensated enough to function as an Internalizer
without losing completely his exter- nalized set. Here, the original
tendency may barely be evident in the individual's overt behavior,
but it remains available for expression in special circumstances
or under special conditions.
of a c+, extreme compensation, points to repression of the original
tendency to such an extent that the individual is now unaware
of its existence. An Ec+, for example, acts like an I (except
for his ten- sion) and, in fact, firmly believes that he is an
I. In view of his highly internalized behavior, others, too, will
share his belief. Any hint of his true externalized needs has
become threatening to him so he is thoroughly armored against
such intrusion. At the cost of great tension, he maintains his
internalized defensive superstructure.
between Primitive tendency and Basic adjustment is most severe
when the individual strongly Compensates by repressing a very
strong original disposition. An E+c+, for example, is a highly
externalized individual who has compensated by developing in a
strongly internalized direction. This combination of powerful
tendencies in opposition produces internalized behavior of almost
pathological intensity. Such a person remains continually, though
unconsciously, alert to the danger that his original E-ness may
break through his defenses and thus disrupt his adopted I orientation.
He protects himself against this threat by becoming as entirely
I-ish as possible. The quality of his behavior differs markedly
from that of an Iu. The Iu has remained an Internalizer out of
preference but the E+c+ has become an Internalizer out of necessity.
kinds of compensated categories among Internalizers are fully
parallel to those described in connection with Externalizers.
An I+ symbolizes a strong Internalizer in the original state,
and a c+ represents an extreme compensation. An I+c+, then, represents
an overcompensated, strongly internalized individual who has repressed
his I-ness and forced himself to extreme E-ness. The lc+ is an
individual whose degree of compensation has led to suppression
rather than repression.
like the Ec+, is strongly compensated but, in this case, the original
tendency is less intense. Finally, the Ic resembles the Ec in
that the original tendency is not strong in either and in both
cases the defensive structure is not completely repressive. (Their
behavior, however, is completely different.)
have referred to compensation or lack of compensation only as
it occurs in Externalizers or Internalizers, the same possibilities
and the same notations hold with regard to the other dimensions
of personality. A child with original Regulated-literal tendencies,
for example, may retain or react against his inherent set, again
depending on the relationships between the strength of environmental
pressure and the strength of his innate tendencies. And, obviously,
the same thing is true for the Role Adaptive and the Role Uniform
method, and in fact the same letters, are used to indicate the
next level of adaptation, called modification. The letter u stands
for unmodified and the letter c for modified, while a plus sign
following either letter indicates that the tendency is strong.
the two levels of adaptation, then, the capital letter standing
for each Primitive tendency is followed by two qualifying symbols,
the first showing strength of compensation, the second showing
the direction and strength of modification.
an extreme Primitive Externalizer who has developed strong compensations
and equally strong modifications is an E+c+c+. An original Internalizer
who has compensated to a moderate degree but has failed thereafter
to modify at all is an Icu+. All the other combinations of compensatory
and modifying tendencies are given similar symbolic expression
This is the
symbol system most commonly used with PAS. A more abbreviated
set of symbols is used by some practitioners of the PAS with considerable
success. The abbreviated system is presented in Table 1, following.
Somr prefer one, some the other.
the abbreviated or full set of symbols is used, they represent
a concise and easily manageable statement of personality. They
are a record of the essential dynamics of the personality obtained
either from test data or observation, and a convenient instrument
for predicting from personality to future behavior.
three tables give the notation used by the PAS for all of the
possible combinations of High or Low WAIS sub-test scores. (Please
note: The terms, High and Low sub-test scores are always used
in the PAS with reference to Normal Level.)