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A guide to a self-study course on the PAS using resources on this
web site is presented below.
Suggested Order of Study
Important Before You Start:
- Dr. Bob MacLachlan notes at the
beginning of his short video introduction to the PAS (referenced below) that
the PAS cannot truly be learned from books. It must be learned from other
people. Furthermore, it can only be understood by observing people
in light of PAS theory. The self-study materials here are a starting point
for anyone interesting in learning the PAS.
- The PAS is not just a list of traits for each "kind" of personality.
Rather the PAS is a more comprehensive theory of how personality
develops through life. We often use language like, "An Ec is contemplative
and self-sufficient" as a way to describe behavior that comes from the
Ec adjustment. But learning the PAS means learning the underlying
theory of how personality develops in each dimension and how the
dimensions interact to result in various behavioral traits. Furthermore,
sometimes, the same PAS personality profile might result in somewhat
different behavioral traits in different cultural, family, or social
- The best starting point is the article:
The Personality System - A Radical Hypothesis
by C. J. Krauskopf.
- Paper: "A Brief Explanation of the Personality
- A brief description of the PAS Model and
A more thorough description of the PAS Model
- Paper on the "Origins of the PAS"
- Video Course (several hours) with an
introduction to the PAS This is an organized, somewhat academic,
introduction to the PAS. The presenter, Dr. Bob MacLachlan, is by profession
a teacher. He learned the PAS from John Gittinger and through years of
clinical experience and teaching which gives him a somewhat different
emphasis than John Gittinger. Watching these video lectures and listening to
(or reading the transcripts) of the John Gittinger series below are
complementary learning exercises.
- Extensive lecture series on the PAS by John Gittinger. There are transcripts that go with all of the lectures except the first one. The transcripts, taken from the audio lectures, have a very readable
conversational style, complete with incomplete sentences and so forth. However, they are quite readable for those preferring the speed of reading vs. the time
it takes to listen to the lectures. These lectures have many examples of how
the PAS applies to life situations that are not found elsewhere.
- Video lecture series by Marshall Heyman Ph.D. This repeats much material from item 3 (MacLachlan videos) but
with a different presenter. It uses different examples and provides
information on the Responsbility Cluster, 4th dimension, and reference
- The Weschler scales and the PAS - how they relate.
- Several case studies relating PAS profiles to actual cases
- Paper: Discussion of the 64 possible types at the Basic level (after compensation).
- The most thorough resource for further study is the book:
C. J., & Saunders, D. R. (1994). Personality and ability: The
Personality Assessment System. Lanham, MD: University Press
of America. This book contains a rather complete statement of the theory and
supporting research to date.