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                                           Selected References

 These references are selected because much of the research on the PAS is in dissertations, grant reports and the journal published by the foundation. These references are available in most research libraries, and they present the PAS from different points of view.  They also contain reports of research on several aspects of the system.  There is a complete bibliography up to 1984 available from the foundation. 

 Bem, D. J. (1982). Toward a response style theory of persons in situations, The 1982 Nebraska          Symposium on Motivation, 201-231. An overview with some discussion about why further research on the system might be rewarding.

 Klingler,  D. E., & Saunders, D. R. (1975). A factor analysis of the items of nine subtests of the WAIS. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 10,131-154.An item factor analysis with a sample of 916 which found 15 factors as the best fit.  There are good matches with most PAS dimensions.

 Krauskopf, C. J.   (1998). The Personality Assessment System: A radical hypothesis.  Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7, 235-245.The story of the invention of the PAS by an insightful clinician and the story of more scientific minded psychologists trying to explain how the system could work. 

 Krauskopf, C. J., & Saunders, D. R. (1994).  Personality and ability: The Personality Assessment System.  Lanham, MD: University Press of America.The most complete statement of the theory and supporting research to date.  There are instructions on how to use the WAIS and WAISR and an extensive section on interpretation.

 Krauskopf, C. J., & Saunders, D. R. (1995).   Career assessment with the PAS. Journal of Career Assessment,  3, 241-257.  A brief description of the theory and examples of how it might be used to put aptitude and ability back in  career assessment. 

 Saunders, D. R., & Gittinger, J. W. (1968).  Patterns of intellectual functioning and their implications for the dynamics of behavior.  In Katz,  M. M.,  Cole,  J. O. & Barton, M. D. (Eds)  The role and methodology of classification in psychiatry and psychopathology. Washington,     D. C.: U. S. Public Health Service. A statement of the theory¬ís most fundamental hypotheses, and data from large scale studies of the Wechsler tests about some of the theoretically derived hypotheses.  It also contains

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