These references are selected
because much of the research on the PAS is in dissertations, grant
reports and the journal published by the foundation. These
references are available in most research libraries, and they
present the PAS from different points of view. They also contain
reports of research on several aspects of the system. There is a
complete bibliography up to 1984 available from the foundation.
Bem, D. J. (1982). Toward a
response style theory of persons in situations,
The 1982 Nebraska Symposium on Motivation,
201-231. An overview with some discussion about why further
research on the system might be rewarding.
Klingler, D. E., & Saunders,
D. R. (1975). A factor analysis of the items of nine subtests of
the WAIS. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 10,131-154.An
item factor analysis with a sample of 916 which found 15 factors
as the best fit. There are good matches with most PAS dimensions.
C. J. (1998). The Personality Assessment System: A radical
hypothesis. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7,
235-245.The story of the invention of the PAS by an insightful
clinician and the story of more scientific minded psychologists
trying to explain how the system could work.
C. J., & Saunders, D. R. (1994). Personality and ability: The
Personality Assessment System. Lanham, MD: University Press
of America.The most complete statement of the theory and
supporting research to date. There are instructions on how to use
the WAIS and WAISR and an extensive section on interpretation.
C. J., & Saunders, D. R. (1995). Career assessment with the PAS.
Journal of Career Assessment, 3, 241-257. A brief
description of the theory and examples of how it might be used to
put aptitude and ability back in career assessment.
Saunders, D. R., & Gittinger,
J. W. (1968). Patterns of intellectual functioning and their
implications for the dynamics of behavior. In Katz, M. M.,
Cole, J. O. & Barton, M. D. (Eds) The role and methodology of
classification in psychiatry and psychopathology.
Washington, D. C.: U. S. Public Health Service. A statement of
the theory’s most fundamental hypotheses, and data from large
scale studies of the Wechsler tests about some of the
theoretically derived hypotheses. It also contains
interpretations of five Wechsler profiles which overlap in
significant ways and differ in other significant ways.
J. G., & Gittinger, J. W. (1968). Introduction to the
Personality Assessment System. Journal
of Clinical Psychology Monograph Supplement No. 38.